Graphene, a monolayer material exfoliated from graphite, was first discovered and proved by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov from the University of Manchester. The two physicists were awarded the Nobel Prize 2010 "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene".

Graphene is a unique material in various aspects.  It is composed of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms which form a 2-D honeycomb structure. This honeycomb structure has a mere thickness of 0.335 nm, thus making it the thinnest known material in the world. Despite graphene’s thin structure, it possesses an outstanding mechanical strength. It is a hundred times stronger than steel, yet it is approximately four times lighter. Moreover, graphene displays the lowest electrical resistance at room temperature, even more so than copper and silver. Graphene also has the advantages of high electron mobility and transparency. Each of these properties broaden the potential applications for graphene in electronic and photovoltalic devices; particularly in semiconductors, solar cells, touch screen, and other its related industries.

Theoretical physical properties of graphene:
Coefficient of thermal conductivity 5300 W/m·K
Specific surface area 2630 m2/g
Resistivity 10-6 Ω·cm
Electron mobility 2·105 cm2/V·s
Optical Transmittance 97.7 %